To determine the toxicity levels and various other important medical factors, the process of testing new products or chemicals has at some point required the use of animals. Having said that, scientists have been able to come up with proven and alternative strategies that have been shown to lead to much safe and effective production of drugs for animal consumptions. For instance, factors such as skin corrosivity and irritation are much convenient to measure by using three dimensional human skin models such as Skin Ethic. Other alternatives include Episkin and various other complex and computer based structures that can be used to determine the corrosion levels. Besides that, these can also be used to determine irritation by methods of co-relation a new drug with its likely results.
Although testing in animal models is only a method of evaluating human side effects, both these methods tend to attract a host ethical concerns, especially when it comes to animal testing. For instance, since the late 1950s, various experts in toxicology have sought ways to mitigate or reduce animal testing procedures. For instance, one of the most common of them all is the `Three Rs`. This is a term used to refer to reduce the number of experiments conducted on animals, refine experiments to cause less suffering and reduce the number of life forms used when possible.
Computer modeling is one of the main examples of alternative methods of testing. Here, specific computer models of proteins and chemicals are used to identify relationships and functions as well. This procedure often requires expert competencies in molecular modeling along with statistics to achieve the bests results. Toxicity testing is approaching a scientific turning point, and it is increasingly leveraging the benefits of biotechnology and biology fields as well. The various upgrades in the relevant fields will make the toxicology testing much more convenient, and this will lead to the discovery of several medical solutions. In some instances, adjustments from animal studies have been supported by regulations and law. For example, the European Union recently banned the use of animal testing for cosmetic procedures in 2013.
The ever-increasing costs of health care and the cost of some medicines make it challenging to address toxicology. The side effects of consuming the wrong medication are inherent. The government of the USA provides various statistics to support these facts. For instance, a recent study showed that an average of 125,000 individuals dies each year due to consuming their medicines inappropriately.